ОтзывыFor example, prolonged administration of therapeutic levels of erythromycin in freshwater systems significantly disrupts the AOB and NOB populations Collins et al.
Wastewater[ edit ] Biofiltration is used to treat wastewater from a wide range of sources, with varying organic compositions and concentrations. Engineered biofilters, designed and built since the early s, have provided significant footprint reductions over the conventional flat-bed, organic media type.
Biofiltration is thus usually referred to as a fixed—film process. Bespoke biofilters have been developed and commercialized for the treatment of animal wastes landfill leachates dairy wastewater domestic wastewater. In other biofiller отзывы, the process has the capacity to maintain its performance biofiller отзывы rapidly return to initial levels following a period of no flow, of intense use, toxic shocks, media backwash high rate biofiltration processesetc.
A schematic cross-section of the contact face of the bed media in a trickling filter. These materials are categorized as inorganic media sand, gravel, geotextile biofiller отзывы, different shapes of plastic media, glass beads, etc. Media biofiller отзывы water, although many systems recycle part of it to reduce operating costs, has a moderately high biochemical oxygen demand BOD and may require treatment before disposal.
Air cycle system at biosolids composting plant. Large duct in foreground is exhaust air into biofilter shown biofiller отзывы previous biofiller отзывы One of the main challenges to optimum biofilter operation is maintaining proper moisture throughout the system.
Chemicals such as oxidizing peroxideozone or biocide agents can also be used. Generally, the biofilm is formed by a community of different microorganisms bacteriafungiyeastetc.
Serluca PhDb, in Biofiller отзывы Animal Medicine Third Edition1 Nitrogen or Nitrification Cycle A fully functioning biological filter, biofiller отзывы biofilter, should be biofiller отзывы of removing a large majority of toxic nitrogenous wastes produced within a closed system.
The addition of too many new fish quickly or treatment of the water with unwarranted chemical agents, including antibiotics, can frequently result in disastrous shifts in the character of the bacterial flora within the biofilter.
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Types of filtering media[ edit ] Originally, biofilter was developed using rock or slag as filter media, but different types of material are used today. Biofiltration is also common in wastewater treatmentaquaculture and greywater recycling, as a way to minimize water replacement while increasing water quality.
This "nitrification" process requires oxygen aerobic biofiller отзывыwithout which the biofilter can crash. Microorganismsincluding bacteria and fungi are immobilized in the biofilm and degrade the pollutant.
Because microorganisms are retained within the biofilm, biofiltration allows the development of microorganisms with relatively low specific growth rates; Biofilters are less subject to variable or intermittent loading and to hydraulic shock ;  Operational costs are usually lower than for activated sludge ; Final treatment result is less influenced by biomass separation since the biomass concentration biofiller отзывы the biofiller отзывы is much lower than for suspended biomass processes; Attached biomass becomes more specialized higher concentration of relevant organisms at a given point in the process train because there is no biomass return.
The main influencing factors are the water composition, the biofilter hydraulic loading, the type of media, the feeding strategy percolation or submerged mediathe age of the biofilm, temperature, aeration, etc.
Many examples of biofiltration applications are described in the literature. The structure of the biofilm biofiller отзывы microorganisms from difficult environmental conditions and retains the biomass inside the process, even when conditions are not optimal for its growth.
Use biofiller отзывы aquaculture[ edit ] The use of biofilters is common in closed aquaculture systems, such as recirculating aquaculture systems RAS.
AOB identified in freshwater aquaria include Nitrosomonas spp. Mechanical disruption of a biofilter that dislodges the bacteria from the substrate can also compromise its performance.
Many designs are used, with different benefits and drawbacks, however the function is the same: The air is normally humidified before it enters the bed with a watering spray system, humidification chamber, bioscrubber, or biotrickling filter. Although these aforementioned chemotrophic bacteria are primarily responsible for the conversion of ammonia to nitrate, other bacterial species of the fish flora, including the potentially opportunistic heterotrophs, such as Aeromonas spp.
Water treatment[ edit ] A typical complete trickling filter system for treating wastewaters. Water to be treated can biofiller отзывы applied intermittently or continuously over the media, via upflow or biofiller отзывы. Properly maintained, a natural, organic packing media like peat, vegetable mulch, bark or wood chips may last for several years but engineered, combined natural organic and synthetic component packing materials will generally last much longer, up to 10 years.
Therefore, biofiller отзывы water changes are essential to prevent the accumulation of nitrate and other toxic metabolites within the environment.
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The aspect of the biofilm  is usually slimy and muddy. Under optimum conditions, including relatively low turbidity and high oxygen content, the organisms break down material in the water and thus improve water quality. It is important to realize that the biofilter is a dynamic biofiller отзывы of many species of bacteria that biofiller отзывы a significant impact on water quality and subsequently fish health.
Any abrupt change in the aquatic environment can adversely affect the bacteria within the biofilter.
However, maintaining lower levels of nitrate within the system is important to ensure proper health of the biofilter and to control the biofiller отзывы of algae. The biofilters use trillions of microscopic biofiller отзывы that cleanse the air being released from the plant.
Oxygen can be supplied to the biofilm, either concurrently or countercurrently with water flow. Within the fish system, biofiller отзывы ammonia NH3 biofiller отзывы primarily comes from fish excreta and uneaten, decaying food.
Although widely employed, the scientific community is biofiller отзывы unsure of the physical phenomena underpinning biofilter operation, and information about the microorganisms involved continues to be developed. These biological treatment systems effectively reduce water-borne diseases, dissolved organic carbon, turbidity and color in surface water, thus improving overall water quality.
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Biofiltration processes are usually aerobicwhich means that microorganisms require oxygen for biofiller отзывы metabolism. These bacteria are also integral components of the normal flora of the fish and are constantly seeded into the biofilter through fish excretions Castignettii and Hollocher, The biofilter is populated by two distinct physiological groups of nitrifying bacteria: Drinking water[ edit ] For drinking water, biological water treatment involves the use of naturally occurring microorganisms in the surface water to improve water quality.
For large volumes of air, a biofilter may be the only cost-effective solution. Trickling filters and bioscrubbers rely on a biofiller отзывы and the bacterial action in their recirculating waters.
In some freshwater aquarium biofilters, AOA biofiller отзывы been found to be the predominant ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms and outnumber AOB by orders of magnitude Bagchi et al.